Binti Thaamani Campaign
While the number of students attending the Vocational Training Centres (VTCs) has been increasing in the last five years, the number of girls enrolling has remained low compared to that of boys.
This disparity may be attributed to the wide variation between access and attainment rates between males and females. Direct and indirect costs of education affect girls disproportionately. On the other hand, girls seem to do better than boys in mathematics, science and technology but also in a number of other vocational training skills.
Lack of career guidance, teaching and learning resources in primary and secondary schools, poor teacher quality and morale, inaccessibility to VTCs' information and lack of scholarships to enable girls from poor economic backgrounds to attend secondary school or vocational training are among the factors leading to a decreased rate of applicants to VTCs in Tanzania and Don Bosco VTCs in particular.
1. To encourage girls to apply for vocational training programs, hence increasing the number of female admissions in the VTCs.
2. To raise awareness of Don Bosco VTCs' initiatives in schools and communities with an aim of getting more female students to enrol for VCTs in Dodoma and Dar es Salaam.
3. To encourage and implement an effective platform for advancing, recognizing and rewarding girls.
4. To create a platform that will facilitate girls to identify, approach and transform their challenges into opportunities.
5. To enable girls to reshape their self-confidence so as to overcome everyday life challenges by improving their life skills.
6. To provide guidance for a well-balanced life in terms of health, income and making a living.
HOW THE OBJECTIVES WERE ACHIEVED
The direct and indirect partners of VIA Don Bosco in Tanzania share the opinion that it is important to have equal opportunities for girls and boys in vocational training, including internship and employment. Directors, teachers, personnel of the JPO, students, and parents all agree and mentioned different reasons: economic, personnel, institutional and political.
They agree first of all for economic reasons. Economic hardship nowadays makes that it is generally accepted that girls should be educated and engaged in employment or in entrepreneurship, so that they will assist their families to raise the income and hence reach household well being. Women will also be in the position to assist their family as well as their relatives. Another important economic reason is that the labour market is expanding and needs workers, so women have to engage in different trades. Moreover, according to several interviewees, “men’s jobs” pay better than “women’s jobs”.
For VIA DB the theme is important and has a certain priority. For this reason the thematic evaluation is on gender. The Technical and Financial Program Document contains a general description of the gender theme, with respect to education and employment, but does not present a specific and thorough gender analysis for each region and VTC. No objectives, results and indicators in relation with gender mainstreaming and specific actions are formulated.
According to the Via DB team, the main reason for the weak integration of gender in the program is not the absence of the will but a lack of know how, strategies, methods and tools for effective gender mainstreaming in development programs. The same is true for DB VIA partners.
Effectiveness refers to the achievements in terms of gender equality that contribute to attaining the specific objective of the program.
Global objective: the youngsters and adolescents of Tanzania have a better life and can contribute to the development of a fair world and social justice.
Specific objective: The socio-professional integration of disadvantaged young people in Tanzania was improved sustainably through these results:
(1) Improving the quality of the learning process in the Don Bosco VTCs;
(2) Improving the quality of management of the centres; and
(3) Improving the quality of support to the working world.
For this evaluation we analyse how the program results contribute to the achievement of the specific goal regarding gender aspects, and more specifically the improvement of socio-professional integration of disadvantaged young people - boys and girls – in an equal way.
We assessed the socio-professional integration of girls and boys to show the results.
In general staff and directors share the vision of giving equal opportunities for girls and boys to get access to all technical trades although there is some divergence in the way of interpreting this vision. This can be explained by the fact that the gender policy is still an informal policy.
For the directors and staff of the VTCs their schools were initially meant to receive and educate boys because they were a male religious community. Nowadays, due to development processes (globalisation, technology change, economic crises, etc.) things have changed and schools are open to girls too but still few girls come. The 3 VTCs are aware of the limitations of their institutions not having hostels for girls (and boys) and adequate facilities (sanitation). Despite these shortcomings the 3 centres have some good strategies and practices in favour of promoting equal access for girls and boys to technical training and to employment.
All trades of the VTCs are open for girls and boys.
The VTC in Dodoma is the biggest of the three centres with 695 students enrolled in 2014; 53 of them were girls and 642 boys. In terms of % this means: 8% girls and 92% boys. Girls were most interested in Computer, Electrical installation and Plumbing. Boys are a minority in Computer. For each of the 3 trades where girls are enrolled there is a positive evolution over the last 3 years.
Figures of the VTC Dar Es Salaam show that 37 girls and 156 boys did enrol in 2014; this means 19% girls and 81% boys. Girls were enrolled for two trades: Electrical installation and Secretarial. Boys did not enrol for Secretarial.
In the VTC of Iringa 224 students enrolled in 2014, 27 girls and 197 boys; in terms of % this means 12% girls and 88% boys. Two trades are particularly preferred by the girls: Electrical and Printing. Further, we find that girls are represented in almost all trades offered by the VTC; an interesting fact considering the importance of role models.